PROSES TERJADINYA SINAR X DAN SIFAT-SIFAT SINAR X

PROSES TERJADINYA SINAR X

Sinar x dibentuk ketika elektron-elektron bebas melepaskan sebagian energinya ketika berinteraksi dengan elektron yang mengorbit atau dengan nukleus atau inti atim. Energi yang dilepaskan oleh elektron ini adalah Foton Sinar X.

Proses terjadinya sinar x adalah sebagai berikut :

a. Katoda (filament) dipanaskan (besar dari 20.0000C) sampai menyala dengan mengalirkan listrik yang berasal dari transformator.

b. Karena panas electron-elektron dari katoda (filamen) terlepas.

c. Sewaktu dihubungkan dengan transformator tegangan tinggi, elektron-elektron gerakannya dipercepat menuju anoda yang berpusat di focusing cup.

d. Awan-awan elektron mendadak dihentikan pada target (sasaran) sehingga terbentuk panas (99%) den sinar x (1%).

e. Pelindung (perisai) timah akan mencegah keluarnya sinar x, sehingga sinar x yang terbentuk hanya dapat keluar melalui jendela.

f. Panas yang tinggi pada target (sasaran) akibat benturan electron dihilangkan dengan radiator pendingin.

Ringkasan terjadinya sinar x

Melalui generator yang membuat aliran listrik dengan potensial tinggi, logam pijar molybdenum memijar, pada saat tertentu logam pijar tersebut menghasilkan awan elektron (logam pijar molybdenum disebut sebagai filamen) pada suhu tertentu serta saat tertentu pula electron-elektron tertarik ke anoda (anoda adalah unsur radioaktif barium platinum sianida atau tungsten carbide). Dengan kata lain bila anoda dibombardir oleh electron, akan timbul pancaran sinar radiasi roentgen atau sinar x, keadaan ini terjadi di dalam tabung vakum Coolidge.

Tabung sinar x

Tabung sinar x terdiri dari tabung gelas hampa udara, elektroda positif disebut anoda dan elektroda positif disebut katoda. Katoda dibalut dengan filament, bila diberi arus beberapa mA bisa melepaskan elektron. Dengan memberi tegangan tinggi antara anoda dan katoda maka elektron katoda ditarik ke anoda. Arus elektron ini dikonsentrasikan dalam satu berkas dengan bantuan sebuah silinder (focusing cup). Antikatoda menempel pada anoda dibuat dari logam dengan titik permukaan lebih tinggi, berbentuk cekungan seperti mangkuk. Waktu elektron dengan kecepatan tinggi di dalam berkas tersebut menumbuk antikatoda, terjadilah sinar x. Makin tinggi nomor atom katoda maka makin tinggi kecepatan elektron, akan makin besar daya tembus sinar x yang terjadi. Antikatoda umumnya dibuat dari tungsten, sebab elemen ini nomor atomnya tinggi dan titik leburnya juga tinggi (34000C) hanya sebagian kecil energi elektron yang berubah menjadi sinar x kurang dari 1% pada tegangan 100 kV dan sebagian besar berubah menjadi panas waktu menumbuk antikatoda. Panas yang tinggi pada tabung didinginkan dengan menggunakan pendingin minyak emersi / air.

SIFAT-SIFAT SINAR X

Sinar x mempunyai beberapa sifat fisik adalah daya tembus, pertebaran, penyerapan, efek fotografik, fluoresensi, ionisasi dan efek biologik, selain itu, sinar x tidak dapat dilihat dengan mata, bergerak lurus dimana pergerkannya sama dengan kecepatan cahaya, tidak bisa difraksikan bersama lensa atau prisma tetapi bisa difraksikan dengan kisi kristal. Bisa diserap oleh timah hitam, dapat dibelokkan setelah menembus logam atau benda padat, memiliki frekuensi gelombang yang tinggi.

  1. Daya tembus

Sinar x bisa menembus bahan atau massa yang padat bersama daya tembus yang sangat besar seperti tulang dan gigi. Semakin tinggi tegangan tabung ( besarnya KV) yang dipakai, semakin besar daya tembusnya. Semakin rendah berat atom atau kepadatan suatu benda, semakin besar daya tembusnya.

2. Pertebaran

Apabila berkas sinar x melewati suatu bahan atau suatu zat, maka berkas sinar tersebut akan bertebaran keseluruh arah, menimbulkan radiasi sekunder (radiasi hambur) pada bahan atau zat yang dilewati. Hal ini akan mengakibatkan terjadinya gambar radiograf dan pada film akan tampak pengaburan kelabu secara menyeluruh. Untuk mengurangi dampak radiasi hambur ini maka diantara subjek dengan diletakkan timah hitam (grid) yang tipis.

3. Penyerapan

Sinar x dalam radiografi diserap oleh bahan atau zat sesuai dengan berat atom atau kepadatan bahan atau zat tersebut. Makin tinggi kepadatannya atau berat atomnya makin besar penyerapannya.

4. Fluoresensi

Sinar x menyebabkan bahan-bahan tertentu seperti kalsium tungstat atau zink sulfide memendarkan cahaya (luminisensi). Luminisensi ada 2 jenis yaitu :

  1. Fluoresensi, yaitu memendarkan cahaya sewaktu ada radiasi sinar x saja.
  2. Fosforisensi, pemendaran cahaya akan berlangsung beberapa saat walaupun radiasi sinar x sudah dimatikan (after – glow).

5. Ionisasi

Efek primer dari sinar x apabila mengenai suatu bahan atau zat dapat menimbulkan ionisasi partikel-partikel atau zat tersebut.

6. Efek biologi

Sinar x akan menimbulkan perubahan-perubahan biologi pada jaringan. Efek biologi ini yang dipergunakan dalam pengobatan radioterapi. 

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang Pembentukan Sinar X dan Sifat-Sifat Sinar X. semoga bermanfaat… 🙂

37 Responses to PROSES TERJADINYA SINAR X DAN SIFAT-SIFAT SINAR X

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