PENGERTIAN, PRINSIP KERJA, DAN JENIS-JENIS TERMOMETER

Pengertian Termometer

Termometer adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur suhu atau alat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan derajat panas atau dingin suatu benda. Termometer memanfaatkan sifat termometrik dari suatu zat, yaitu perubahan dari sifat-sifat zat disebabkan perubahan suhu dari zat tersebut.

Adapun jenis zat cair yang digunakan pada termometer diantaranya seperti:

  1. Termometer raksa

Termometer yang biasanya digunakan saaat ini adalah termometer air raksa. Fungi dari air raksa sebagai penunjuk suhu suatu benda yang diukur, berikut ini beberapa keunggulan dari air raksa diantaranya seperti:

  • Sangat peka terhadap perubahan dari suhu.
  • Dapat dipakai untuk mengukur suhu yang tinggi maupun yang rendah.
  • Mengkilap seperti perak sehingga mudah sekali untukdilihat.
  • Tidak akan membasahi dinding kaca.
  • Mengembang dan memuai secara teratur.

Raksa juga mempunyai kelemahan:

  • Harganya mahal dan susah diperoleh
  • Raksa tidak bisa mengukur suhu yang sangat rendah.
  • Raksa termasuk kedalam zat beracun sehingga berbahaya apabila tabungnya bocor atau pecah.
  1. Termometer Alkohol

Selain cairan raksa, alkohol juga bisa digunakan untuk mengisi pipa termometer. Tapi penggunaan alkohol pada termometer tidak sebanyak penggunaan air raksa. Alkohol dapat digunakan sebagai pengisi pipa termometer sebab alkohol mempunyai beberapa keunggulan diantaranya seperti:

  • Mempunyai titik beku yang rendah
  • Harga yang relatif murah.
  • Dan mudah memuai.

Alkohol juga mempunyai beberapa kelemahan:

  • Alkohol dapat membasahi dinding kaca dari termometer.
  • Alkohol tidak bisa digunakan untuk mengukur suhu yang tinggi.
  • Dan alkohol tidak berwarna, sehingga perlu diberi warna supaya mudah untuk terlihat.

Prinsip dan Cara Kerja Termometer

Cara kerja termometer secara garis besar dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut.

  1. Bila tandon zat cair terkena (dikenai) panas (dapat berupa panas dari benda) zat cair dalam tandon akan mengembang (memuai).
  2. Oleh karena zat cair dalam tandon memuai, zat cair tersebut masuk ke celah kapiler. Selanjutnya, zat cair tersebut berhenti pada skala suhu tertentu. Skala itulah yang menunjukkan suhu benda yang bersangkutan.

Jenis-Jenis Termometer yang dapat Ditemukan dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari

Pembuatan termometer pertama kali dipelopori oleh Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) yaitu pada tahun 1595. Alat tersebut disebut dengan sebutan termoskop yaitu berupa labu kosong dilengkapi oleh pipa yang panjang dengan ujung pipanya yang terbuka. Awalnya dipanaskan sehingga udara dalam labu akan mengembang. Lalu ujung pipa yang terbuka dicelupkan kedalam cairan berwarna. Saat udara dalam tabu menyusut, zat cair masuk kedalam pipa akan tetapi tidak sampai labu, itu cara kerja dari termoskop. Untuk suhu yang berbeda, tinggi kolom zat cair di dalam pipa juga akan berbeda. Tinggi dari kolom ini dipakai untuk menentukan suhu. Prinsip kerja dari termometer buatan Galileo berdasarkan pada perubahan volume gas di dalam labu. Tetapi pada saat ini termometer yang sering digunakan terbuat dari bahan cair biasanya dari air raksa atau alkhohol. Prinsip yang digunakan yaitu pemuaian zat cair saat terjadi peningkatan suhu yang benda. Berikut ini beberapa jenis termometer yang dapat kita temui dalam kehidupan sehari-hari:

  1. Termometer Klinis

Termometer jenis ini digunakan khusus untuk mendiagnosa penyakit dan umumnya diisi dengan cairan raksa atau cairan alkohol. Termometer klinis memiliki lekukan yang cukup sempit yang berada di atas wadahnya yang berfungsi untuk menjaga agar suhu yang ditunjukan setelah melakukan pengukuran tidak berubah setelah termometer tersebut diangkat dari padan si pasien, dan skala yang terdapat pada termometer ini berkisar antara 35 derajat celcius hingga 42 derajat celcius.

  1. Termometer Laboratorium

Termometer Laboratorium menggunakan cairan raksa atau cairan alkohol. Jika cairan tersebut bertambah panas maka akan memuai sehingga sekalanya akan bertambah. Supaya termometer ini sensitive terhadap perubahan suhu maka dinding dari termometer dibuat setipis mungkin dan jika dapat memungkinkan terbuat dari bahan konduktor.

  1. Termometer Ruangan

Termometer ruangan berfungsi untuk mengukur suhu pada suatu ruangan. Termometer ini sama dengan termometer yang lainnya tapi hanya saja skalanya yang beda, skala pada termometer ini berkisar antara -50 derajat celcius sampai dengan 50 derajat celcius.

  1. Termometer Digital

Prinsip kerja dari termometer digital sama dengan prinsip kerja termometer lainnya yaitu dengan cara pemuaian, pada termometer ini menggunakan logam sebagai sensor suhunya yang kemudian memuai lalu pemuaian tersebut di terjemahkan oleh rangkian elektronik dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk angka digital yang dabat dibaca.

  1. Termokopel

Termometer ini menggunakan bimetal sebagai bahan utamanya, saat terkena panas maka bimetal akan kea rah yang koefisienny lebih kecil. Pemuaian tersebut lalu akan dihubungkan dengan jarum dan jarum tersebut akan menunjukan angka tertentu, angka yang ditunjukan oleh jarum tersebut merupakan suhu dari benda yang diukur.

Demikianlah sedikit pembahasan tentang Pengertian, Prinsip Kerja, dan Jenis-Jenis Termometer. semoga bermanfaat… 🙂

27 Responses to PENGERTIAN, PRINSIP KERJA, DAN JENIS-JENIS TERMOMETER

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