MEDAN MAGNET OLEH ARUS LISTRIK

Hubungan magnet dengan listrik telah diamati oleh Christian Oersted (1777-1851). Oerstad menemukan bahwa ketika kompas diletakkan di dekat kawat penghantar berarus listrik, jarum kompas segera menyimpang dari arah semula. Selain itu, jarum kompas juga dapat menyimpang ketika berada di dalam medan magnet. Oersted menyimpulkan bahwa arus listrik menghasilkan medan magnet.

  1. Hukum Biot-Savart

Besar induksi magnet di suatu titik tergantung pada beberapa faktor, yaitu jarak titik dengan kawat berarus, kuat arus, maupun arah arus terhadap sumbu magnet. Induksi magnet sering disebut kuat medan magnet. Induksi magnet menyatakan kepadatan fluks atau kerapatan fluks magnet (B).

Hukum Biot-Savart menyatakan sebagai berikut.

Besarnya induksi magnet di suatu titik dalam medan magnet:

  1. Berbanding lurus dengan arus listrik (I)
  2. Berbanding lurus dengan panjang elemen kawat (dl)
  3. Berbading lurus dengan sinus sudut antara arah arus dan garis penghubung titik itu ke elemen kawat
  4. Berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara titik itu ke elemen kawat (r).

Berdasarkan faktor-faktor di atas, hukum Biot-Savart dirumuskan:

Keterangan:

I    = kuat arus (A)

dl  = elemen kawat (m)

α   = sudut antara elemen arus dengan garis hubung ke elemen kawat

k   = teteapan, dalam SI k = 107 weber/amapere meter (Wb/Am)

dB            = induksi magnet di P yang disebabkan oleh elemen arus, dinyatakan dalam Wb/m2 atau Tesla (T)

r    = jarak titik ke elemen kawat (m)

  1. Medan Magnet di Sekitar Kawat Lurus Panjang

Besar medan magnet kawat lurus sangat panjang dirumuskan:

Dengan:

B  = besar medan magnet (T)

I    = arus listrik (A)

a   = jarak titik ke kawat (m)

μ0  = 4π x 10-7 T Wb/Am

Satuan medan magnet dalam SI adalahtesla (T). Medan magnet juga dapat dinyatakan dalam satuan newton per ampere meter (N/Am) atau webber per meter persegi (Wb/m2). Satuan lain medan magnet yang bukan dalam SI adalah gauss (G).

  1. Medan Magnet di Pusat Arus Melingkar

Medan magnet oleh kawat melingkar di sebuah titik yang memiliki jarak tertentu terhadap pusat lingkaran dirumuskan sebagai berikut.

Keterangan:

B  = kuat medan magnet (T)

a   = jari-jari lingkaran penghantar (meter)

x   = jarak pusat lingkaran dengan titik (m)

Di pusat  lingkaran x = 0

Apabila ada N lilitan berlaku rumus:

  1. Medan Magnet di Sekitar Selenoid dan Toroid

a.   Medan Magnet dalam Selenoid

Selenoid adalah kumpulan kawat yang terdiri atas banyak lilitan. Medan magnet di dalam selenoid merupakan resultan medan magnet yang dihasilkan oleh setiap lilitan. Ujung kanan, tempat garis-garis B keluar, berperan sebagai kutub utara jarum kompas, sedangkan ujung kiri berperan sebagai kutub selatan. Besar induksi magnetik diujung selenoid maupun di pusat selenoid dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut.

Di pusat selenoid:

Di ujung selenoid:

Keterangan:

B        = besar induksi magnetik (T)

N        = banyak lilitan selenoid

I          = kuat arus (A)

l          = panjang selenoid (A)

μ0        = 4π x 10-7 T Wb/Am

b.   Medan Magnet dalam Toroid

Toroid adalah selenoid yang dilengkungkan sehingga sumbunya membentuk lingkaran. Besar induksi magnetik pada sumbu toroid dirumuskan:

Keterangan:

B        = besar induksi magnetik (T)

N        = banyak lilitan toroid

I          = kuat arus (A)

A        = jari-jari efektif (m)

μ0        = 4π x 10-7 T Wb/Am

rd         = jari-jari dalam

rl         = jari-jari luar

  1. Gaya Lorentz

Jika sebuah muatan bergerak dengan kecepatan tertentu dalam medan magnetik, muatan tersebut akan mengalami gaya magnetik, muatan tersebut akan mengalami gaya magnetik yang disebut gaya Lorentz. Arah gaya Lorentz selalu tegak lurus dengan arah gerak dan medan magnetik. Arah gaya Lorentz ini dapat ditentukan dengan kaidah tangan kanan. Jika kuat arus listrik I dan induksi magnetik B membentuk sudut 90o terhadapa arah arus serta panjang kawat lurus yang panjangnya l, besar gaya Lorentz adalah:

Jika kawat penghantar berarus membentuk sudut α antara arah arus dan arah medan magnetik , gaya Lorentz dirumuskan menjadi:

Keterangan:

Fl  = gaya Lorentz (N)

I    = kuat arus melalui penghantar (A)

l    = panjnag kawat pengahantar

B  = medan magnet (Wb/m2)

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang materi Medan Magnet oleh Arus Listrik, semoga bermanfaat.

34 Responses to MEDAN MAGNET OLEH ARUS LISTRIK

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