MACAM-MACAM PESAWAT SEDERHANA

JENIS-JENIS PESAWAT SEDERHANA

Pesawat sederhana dikelompokkan menjadi empat jenis, yaitu tuas, bidang miring, katrol, dan roda berporos. Agar lebih memahami keempat jenis pesawat sederhana tersebut, berikut akan dijelaskan satu persatu.

  1. Tuas

Jika suatu saat kamu kesulitan menggeser bongkahan batu yang besar, maka kamu dapat menggunakan suatu alat bantu. Alat yang dapat membantu untuk menggeser batu yang besar adalah linggis. Linggis merupakan salah satu jenis tuas. Tuas lebih dikenal dengan nama pengungkit. Pada umumnya, tuas atau pengungkit menggunakan batang besi atau kayu yang digunakan untuk mengungkit suatu benda.

Terdapat tiga titik yang menggunakan gaya ketika kita mengungkit suatu benda, yaitu beban (B), titik tumpu (TT), dan kuasa (K). Beban merupakan berat benda, sedangkan titik tumpu merupakan tempat bertumpunya suatu gaya. Gaya yang bekerja pada tuas disebut kuasa

Berdasarkan posisi atau kedudukan beban, titik tumpu, dan kuasa, tuas digolongkan menjadi tiga, yaitu tuas golongan pertama, tuas golongan kedua, dan tuas golongan ketiga.

a.   Tuas Golongan Pertama

Pada tuas golongan pertama, kedudukan titik tumpu terletak di antara beban dan kuasa.

Contoh tuas golongan pertama ini di antaranya adalah gunting, linggis, jungkat-jungkit, dan alat pencabut paku.

b.   Tuas Golongan Kedua

Pada tuas golongan kedua, kedudukan beban terletak di antara titik tumpu dan kuasa.

Contoh tuas golongan kedua ini di antaranya adalah gerobak beroda satu, alat pemotong kertas, dan alat pemecah kemiri, pembuka tutup botol.

c.   Tuas golongan ketiga

Pada tuas golongan ketiga, kedudukan kuasa terletak di antara titik tumpu dan beban.

Contoh tuas golongan ketiga ini adalah sekop yang biasa digunakan untuk memindahkan pasir.

  1. Bidang Miring

Ketika liburan sekolah kamu mungkin pernah mengunjungi daerah pegunungan untuk mencari udara segar. Jalan-jalan di sana ternyata dibuat berkelok-kelok. Jalan yang berkelok-kelok menuju pegunungan memanfaatkan cara kerja bidang miring. Bidang miring adalah permukaan rata yang menghubungkan dua tempat yang berbeda ketinggiannya.  Dengan dibuat berkelok-kelok pengendara kendaraan bermotor lebih mudah melewati jalan yang menanjak. Orang yang memindahkan drum ke dalam bak truk dengan menggunakan papan sebagai bidang miringnya. Dengan demikian, drum berat yang besar ukurannya lebih mudah dipindahkan ke atas truk.

Bidang miring memiliki keuntungan, yaitu kita dapat memindahkan benda ke tempat yang lebih tinggi dengan gaya yang lebih kecil. Namun demikian, bidang miringjuga memiliki kelemahan, yaitu jarak yang di tempuh untuk memindahkan benda menjadi lebih jauh.

Prinsip kerja bidang miring juga dapat kamu temukan pada beberapa perkakas, contohnya kampak, pisau, pahat, obeng, dan sekrup. Berbeda dengan bidang miring lainnya, pada perkakas yang bergerak adalah alatnya.

  1. Katrol

Di awal pembahasan, kamu telah mengenal salah satu jenis pesawat sederhana yang ada di sekolahmu, yaitu katrol. Katrol merupakan roda yang berputar pada porosnya. Biasanya pada katrol juga terdapat tali atau rantai sebagai penghubungnya. Berdasarkan cara kerjanya, katrol merupakan jenis pengungkit karena memiliki titik tumpu, kuasa, dan beban. Katrol digolongkan menjadi tiga, yaitu katrol tetap, katrol bebas, dan katrol majemuk.

a.   Katrol Tetap

Katrol tetap merupakan katrol yang posisinya tidak berpindah pada saat digunakan. Katrol jenis ini biasanya dipasang pada tempat tertentu. Katrol yang digunakan pada tiang bendera dan sumur timba adalah contoh katrol tetap.

b.   Katrol Bebas

Berbeda dengan katrol tetap, pada katrol bebas kedudukan atau posisi katrol berubah dan tidak dipasang pada tempat tertentu. Katrol jenis ini biasanya ditempatkan di atas tali yang kedudukannya dapat berubah. Salah satu ujung tali diikat pada tempat tertentu. Jika ujung yang lainnya ditarik maka katrol akan bergerak. Katrol jenis ini bisa kita temukan pada alat-alat pengangkat peti kemas di pelabuhan.

c.   Katrol Majemuk

Katrol majemuk merupakan perpaduan dari katrol tetap dan katrol bebas. Kedua katrol ini dihubungkan dengan tali. Pada katrol majemuk, beban dikaitkan pada katrol bebas. Salah satu ujung tali dikaitkan pada penampang katrol tetap. Jika ujung tali yang lainnya ditarik maka beban akan terangkat beserta bergeraknya katrol bebas ke atas

  1. Roda Berporos

Roda berporos merupakan roda yang dihubungkan dengan sebuah poros yang dapat berputar bersama-sama. Roda berporos merupakan salah satu jenis pesawat sederhana yang banyak ditemukan pada alat-alat seperti setir mobil, setir kapal, roda sepeda, roda kendaraan bermotor, dan gerinda.

 

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang Macam-Macam Pesawat Sederhana, semoga bermanfaat… 🙂

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