LISTRIK STATIS, MEDAN LISTRIK, DAN POTENSIAL LISTRIK

Benda Bermuatan Listrik

Susunan Atom

Atom tersusun dari partikel-partikel kecil yang kompleks. Partikel penyusun atom ada tiga macam, yaitu:

  1. Partikel bermuatan negatif, disebut elektron
  2. Partikel bermuatan positif, disebut proton
  3. Partikel tidak bermuatan, disebut netron

Semua atom memiliki netron, kecuali atom hidrogen. Elektron bergerak mengelilingi inti atom (nukleon). Inti atom terdiri atas  proton dan elektron sama banyaknya. Benda yang kelebihan elektron disebut bermuatan negatif. Benda yang kelebihan proton disebut bermuatan positif. Benda tertentu dapat dibuat bermuatan listrik dengan cara menggosok, dalam hal ini yang ditimbulkan adalah listrik statis. Benda bermuatan listrik dapat menarik benda-benda ringan disekitarnya. Menggosok 2 macam benda tertentu akan menimbulkan muatan listrik statis.

Terjadinya Muatan Listrik

Suatu benda dapat diberi muatan listrik dengan jalan menggosok benda itu dengan benda tertentu. Contoh kaca dengan sutera, ebonit dengan wol. Satuan muatan listrik, yaitu Coulomb (C).

Jenis Muatan Listrik

Ada dua jenis muatan listrik yaitu muatan positif dan muatan negatif. Contoh:

  1. Kaca digosok sutera terjadi muatan positif di kaca. Kaca bermuatan positif karena terdapat perpindahan elektron dari kaca ke kain sutera.
  2. Ebonit dan penggaris plastik digosok wol terjadi muatan negatif di ebonit dan penggaris plastik. Penggaris plastik bermuatan negatif karena ada perpindahan elektron dari kain wol ke penggaris.

Kutub baterai ada 2 jenis, yaitu positif dan negatif. Benda yang atomnya melepaskan elektron dikatakan bermuatan positif dan benda yang atomnya menerima elektron dikatakan bermuatan negatif.

Hukum Coulomb

Besarnya gaya tarik-menarik atau tolak-menolak antara dua benda yang bermuatan listrik sebanding dengan besar muatan benda masing-masing dan berbandin terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda itu.

Rumus Hukum Coulomb:

Dengan

F         = gaya tarik/tolak (N)

Q1, Q2= muatan (C)

r          = jarak Q1– Q2 (m)

k         = 9 x 109 Nm2C-2

Muatan sejenis tolak-menolak

Muatan tak sejenis tarik-menarik

Induksi Listrik

Jika suatu penghantar didekati benda bermuatan maka dalam penghantar itu terjadi pemisahan muatan positif dan negatif, sehingga di dekat benda terdapat muatan-muatan yang berlawanan jenis dengan muatan benda, sedang pada tempat yang jauh (pada penghantar itu) terdapat muatan-muatan yang sejenis. Peristiwa ini disebut imbas (induksi) listrik. Jika bola didekati dengan benda bermuatan mula-mula ditarik melekat, kemudian ditolak sehingga lepas.

Medan Listrik

Medan listrik ditimbulkan oleh satu atau lebih muatan lain. Sifat-sifat gaya listrik sebagai berikut:

  1. Garis gaya listrik berasal dari muatan positif dan berakhir pada muatan negatif.
  2. Garis gaya listrik tidak pernah berpotongan.
  3. Jika garis gaya listrik rapat maka medan listriknya kuat dan jika renggang maka medan listriknya lemah.

Elektroskop

Alat untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya muatan listrik adalah elektroskop. Prinsip kerjanya berdasarkan hukum Coulomb. Perhatikan prinsip kerja elektroskop berikut ini.

  1. Jika ujung elektroskop didekatkan benda bermuatan listrik positif maka elektron-elektron yang berada pada foil mendapat gaya tarik sehingga mengalir menuju ke ujung elektroskop.
  2. Karena elektron-elektronnya telah berpindah maka foil menjadi bermuatan positif sehingga mengalami gaya tolak. Akibatnya kedua daun elektroskop tersebut mekar.

Penangkal Petir

Adalah alat untuk menghindari sambaran petir, biasanya dipasang pada bangunan-bangunan yang tinggi. Kilat/petit terjadi karena adanya perbedaan muatan elektron.

Potensial Listrik

a.   Mesin listrik = generator

Mesin listrik adalah alat untuk menimbulkan muatan listrik dalam jumlah besar. Prinsip kerja generator Van de Graaf adalah pengisian muatan pada bola melalui bagian dalam bola. Dengan cara ini dapat terus-menerus diisi muatan.

b.   Muatan potensial listrik

Adalah energi yang dimiliki oleh benda bermuatan listrik yang berada dalam suatu medan listrik. Energi potensial tiap satuan muatan listrik disebut potensial listrik atau tegangan listrik. Bila penghantar A memiliki muatan positif lebih banyak atau kekurangan elektron dibandingkan dengan penghantar B maka dikatakan potensial listrik penghantar A lebih besar daripada potensial listrik penghantar B.

Demikianlah sedikit penjelasan tentang Listrik Statis, Medan Listrik, dan Potensial Listrik. Semoga Bermanfaat… 🙂

39 Responses to LISTRIK STATIS, MEDAN LISTRIK, DAN POTENSIAL LISTRIK

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