KARAKTERISTIK BAHAN LOGAM

LOGAM

Logam dalam bahasa yunani adalah metallon yang merupakan unsur kimia yang membentuk ion (kation) dan memiliki ikatan logam, atau mirip dengan kation pada awan elektron. Dalam tabel periodik dari boron (Bo) ke Polonium (Po) yang membedakan antara unsur logam dan logam. Unsur dalam garis ini adalah metaloid atau semi logam, unsur di kiri bawah adalah logam, untuk unsur kanan atas adalh non logam. Logam merupakan struktur raksasa dari atom-atom yang berikatan satu sama lain melalui ikatan logam. “Raksasa” menunjukkan jumlah yang sangat banyak tetapi jumlah atom yang terlibat sangat bervariasi – tergantung pada ukuran potongan logam. Logam juga di kenal karena konduktivitas termalnya dan listrik yang tinggi tidak tembus cahaya dan dan relatif berat. Logam berelektron valensi tidak terikat, namun dapat meninggalkan atom induknya.

JENIS ATAU TIPE IKATAN

Ikatan logam terjadi karena adanya saling meminjamkan elektron, namun proses ini tidak hanya terjadi antara dua atau beberapa atom tetapi dalam jumlah yang tidak terbatas. Setiap atom memberikan elektron valensinya untuk digunakan bersama, sehingga terjadi ikatan atau tarik menarik antara atom-atom yang saling berdekatan. Jarak antar atom dalam ikatan logam tetap sama, jika ada atom yang bergerak menjauh maka gaya tarik menarik akan “menariknya” kembali ke posisi semula. Demikian pula jika atom mendekat kesalah satu atom maka akan ada gaya tolak antar inti atom. Pada bahan logam terdapat banyak jenis ikatan logam, antaranya ikatan kovalen, ikatan ion, dua ikatan ini dianggap ikatan terkuat, sedangkan ikatan hidrogen dan ikatan wander waals, ikatan ini dianggap sebagai ikatan yang lemah. Didalam ikatan-ikatan terdapat ikatan kimia koordinasi antara ligan dan logam yang diusulkan oleh A Werner merupakan dasar perkembangan kimia kompleks. Modus ikatan dan struktur senyawa kompleks yang dikenal telah menjadi petunjuk bagi sintesis senyawa-senyawa baru. Untuk kompleks dinuklir atau polinuklir yang mengandung dua atau lebih logam, cukup untuk memperhatikan hanya ikatan logam dan ligan. Konsep ikatan langsung antar logam muncul akibat perlunya menjelaskan kimia struktural logam karbonil dinuklir yang memiliki bagian struktur dengan jumlah elektron ganjil. Contoh dua satuan Mn(CO)5 dalam Mn2(CO)10 dihubungkan dengan Mirip dengan itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa Co2(CO)8, dengan dua ligan jembatan karbonil, harus memiliki ikatan Co-Co agar sifat diamagnetiknya dapat dijelaskan.

Selain itu ada ikatan tunggal dan ikatan rangkap, Untuk ikatan tunggal dikenalkan untuk senyawa karbonil logam dinuklir, karbonil kluster.

Selain ikatan tunggal terdapat juga ikatan rangkap, ikatan ini terdapat pada senyawa dinuklir dengan atomlogam diikat dengan orde ikatan 2 sampai 4.

Ikatan M-M kuadrupol (berorde 4) diusulkan pertama untuk Re2Cl82-, dan sampai saat ini ion ini senyawa ini masih merupakan contoh yang terbaik. Fitur lain yang  tidak umum dalam adalah satuan ReCl4 mengadopsi konfigurasi eklips (atom khlor tumpang tindih sepanjang arah ikatan Re-Re) walaupun koordinasi stagger (dengan atom khlor tidak tumpang tindih sepanjang arah ikatan Re-Re) seharusnya lebih stabil karena jarak antar satuan ReCl4 sangat pendek, dan berakibat pada jarak antar atom khlorin juga sangat pendek (nilai hasil eksperimen adalah 332 pm). Akibatnya, interaksi tolakan antar khlorin ini menjadi kuat.

Tabel 1.1 Beberapa Bentuk geometri Ikatan

Jenis ikatan Jumlah ikatan maksimum Bentuk geometrik
sp 2 Linier
sp2 3 Segitiga datar
sp3 4 Tetrahedron
dsp3 5 Trigonal bipiramid
sp2d ; dsp2 4 Segiempat datar
d2sp3 ; sp3d2 6 Oktahedron

STRUKTUR KRISTAL LOGAM

Struktur logam hampir sama dengan sifat logam, untuk struktur kristal pada logam cukup banyak, jadi pada pembahasan ini akan membahas 2 struktur kristal. Body Centerd Cubic (BCC) atau kubus berpusat badan yang merupakan struktur logam yang banyak dijumpai pada Crom (Cr), Besi Alpha, Molebdenum (Mo), Tantalum (Ta) dan lain-lain. Pada struktur ini memeiliki satu pusat atom pusat dan dikelilingi oleh 8 atom lainnaya yang berada pada diagonalnya. Struktur ini memiliki jumlah atom yang berdekatan 2 buah yang disebut bilangan koordinasi. Ada struktur kristal yang hanya dimiliki beberapa material kristal disebut dengan polymorphism. Selain itu ada strktur kristal logam dari carbon  yaitu nanotube yang hanya untuk miniaturisasi peralatan, atau pada kristal logam gas mulia, seperti (He, Ne, dan Ar). Proses ini diawali dengan Proses tersebut diawali dari bentuk gas yang berubah menjadi cairan dilanjutkan dengan pembentukan kristal yang memiliki titik leleh rendah. Kristal tersebut umumnya transparan, dan bersifat sebagai isolator.

SIFAT-SIFAT FISIS LOGAM

  1. Titik leleh dan titik didih

Kebanyakan dari logam memilki titik leleh dan titik didih yang tinggi karena kekuatan ikatan logam. Karena kekuatan logam tergantung pada jumlah elektron yang terdelokalisasi pada lautan elektron dan pada susunan atomnya. Tetapi untuk logam-logam golongan 1 seperti Natrium dan Kalium memiliki titik leleh dan titik didih yang rendah dikarenakan satu elektron untuk dikontribusikan pada ikatannya, terapi ada penyebab lainnya yaitu karena unsur golongan 1 tersusun tidak efektif dan juga ukuran atom yang relatif besar.

  1. Daya hantar listrik

Logam dapat menghantarkan listrik karen Elektron yang ter delokalisasi bergerak ke seluruh bagian struktur 3 dimensi. selama atom saling bersentuhan satu sama lain, ikatan logam masih tetap ada.

  1. Daya hantar panas

Logam adalah knduktor panas yang baik.

  1. Kekuatan dan kemempuan kerja

Ketika logam berbentuk elastis, ketika tekanan diterpakan pada logam tersebut akan meregang, begitu juga sebaliknya logam akan kembali ke bentuk semula.

  1. Kekerasan logam

Karena logam memiliki butiran yang tersusun sebagaimana metinya, hal ini mengakibatkan logam lebih keras. . Kenaikan jumlah batas butiran tidak hanya membuat logam menjadi semakin kuat, tetapi juga membuat logam menjadi rapuh.

  1. Pengontrolan ukuran butiran kristal

Pengontrolan ini dengan pemanasan biala ingin logam menjadi sususnan lebih rapi dan pendinginan untuk membuat logam lebih keras.

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang Karakteristik Bahan Logam, semoga bermanfaat. 🙂

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    աith one ɑnother.

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