ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BUNYI

Pengertian Bunyi

Bunyi atau suara adalah pemampatan mekanis atau gelombang longitudinal yang merambat melalui medium. Medium atau zat perantara ini dapat berupa zat cair, padat, gas. Jadi, gelombang bunyi dapat merambat misalnya di dalam air, batu bara, atau udara. Kebanyakan suara adalah merupakan gabungan berbagai sinyal getar terdiri dari gelombang harmonis, tetapi suara murni secara teoritis dapat dijelaskan dengan kecepatan getar osilasi atau frekuensi yang diukur dalam satuan getaran Hertz (Hz) dan amplitudo atau kenyaringan bunyi dengan pengukuran dalam satuan tekanan suara desibel (dB). Manusia mendengar bunyi saat gelombang bunyi, yaitu getaran di udara atau medium lain, sampai ke gendang telinga manusia. Batas frekuensi bunyi yang dapat didengar oleh telinga manusia berkisar antara 20 Hz sampai 20 kHz pada amplitudo berbagai variasi dalam kurva responsnya. Suara di atas 20 kHz disebut ultrasonik dan di bawah 20 Hz disebut infrasonik.

Kenyaringan dan desibel

Bunyi kereta lebih nyaring daripada bunyi bisikan, sebab bunyi kereta menghasilkan getaran lebih besar di udara. Kenyaringan bunyi juga bergantung pada jarak kita dari sumber bunyi. Kenyaringan diukur dalam satuan tekanan suara desibel (dB). Bunyi pesawat jet yang lepas landas mencapai tekanan suara sekitar 120 dB. Sedang bunyi desiran daun sekitar 33 dB. Kebanyakan suara adalah merupakan gabungan berbagai sinyal getaran, tetapi suara murni secara teoritis dapat dijelaskan dengan kecepatan getar osilasi atau frekuensi yang diukur dalam satuan Hertz (Hz) dan amplitudo atau kenyaringan bunyi dengan pengukuran dalam satuan desibel (dB). Manusia mendengar bunyi saat gelombang bunyi bergetar, yaitu getaran merambat di udara atau medium lain, sampai ke gendang telinga manusia. Ambang frekuensi bunyi yang dapat didengar oleh telinga manusia berkisar getaran frekuensi 20 Hz sampai 20.000 Hz, pada amplitudo getaran dengan berbagai variasi dalam kurva responsnya. Suara di atas 20.000 Hz disebut ultrasonik dan di bawah 20 Hz disebut infrasonik.

Gema

Gema terjadi jika bunyi dipantulkan oleh suatu oleh permukaan, seperti tebing pegunungan, dan getaran kembali pada telinga kita segera setelah bunyi asli kita dengar. Kejernihan ucapan dan musik dalam ruangan atau gedung konser tergantung pada cara bunyi bergaung di dalamnya. Suara gema merupakan efek suara pantulan yang mengalami penundaan waktu (delay line) dari pantulan suara setelah suara asli kita dengar. Bunyi atau suara adalah kompresi mekanikal atau gelombang longitudinal yang merambat melalui medium. Medium atau zat perantara ini dapat berupa zat cair, padat, gas. Jadi, gelombang bunyi dapat merambat misalnya di dalam air, batu bara, atau udara jadi, gema adalah gelombang pantul yang mengalami penundaan waktu reaksi dari gelombang yang dipancarkan bunyi.

Gelombang bunyi

Gelombang bunyi terdiri dari molekul-molekul udara yang bergetar merambat ke segala arah. Tiap saat, molekul-molekul itu berdesakan di beberapa tempat, sehingga menghasilkan wilayah tekanan tinggi, tapi di tempat lain merenggang, sehingga menghasilkan wilayah tekanan rendah. Gelombang bertekanan tinggi dan rendah secara bergantian bergerak di udara, menyebar dari sumber bunyi. Gelombang bunyi ini menghantarkan bunyi ke telinga manusia, Gelombang bunyi adalah gelombang longitudinal.

Kecepatan bunyi

Bunyi merambat di udara dengan kecepatan 1.224 km/jam. Bunyi merambat lebih lambat jika suhu dan tekanan udara lebih rendah. Di udara tipis dan dingin pada ketinggian lebih dari 11 km, kecepatan bunyi 1.000 km/jam. Di air, kecepatannya 5.400 km/jam, jauh lebih cepat daripada di udara.

Resonansi

Suatu benda, misalnya gelas, mengeluarkan nada musik jika diketuk sebab ia memiliki frekuensi getaran alami sendiri. Jika kita menyanyikan nada musik berfrekuensi sama dengan suatu benda, benda itu akan bergetar. Peristiwa ini dinamakan resonansi. Bunyi yang sangat keras dapat mengakibatkan gelas beresonansi begitu kuatnya sehingga pecah. Sehingga karena resonansi benda ikut bergetarnya suatu benda ketika benda lain di dekatnya digetarkan.

Pengertian Nada

Banyaknya gelombang tiap satu sekon ada yang teratur dan ada yang tidak teratur. Bunyi alat musik adalah salah satu contoh dari bunyi yang frekuensinya teratur. Bunyi kendaraan di jalan, frekuensinya tidak teratur sehingga tidak enak untuk didengar. Gelombang bunyi yang frekuensinya teratur disebut nada, sedangkan gelombang bunyi yang frekuensinya tidak teratur disebut desah. Ketika garputala dipukul, terdengar bunyi yang tetap dan teratur. Itulah yang disebut nada. Nada yang dihasilkan oleh garputala yang frekuensinya berbeda akan berbeda pula. Semakin besar frekuensi maka semakin tinggi nadanya. Begitu pula sebaliknya, semakin rendah frekuensi maka semakin rendah pula nadanya. Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tinggi rendahnya nada ditentukan oleh frekuensi. Semakin tinggi frekuensinya, jarak rapatan dan renggangannya semakin pendek. Kamu masih ingat bahwa jarak rapatan dan renggangan yang berdekatan disebut panjang gelombang. Jadi, semakin tinggi frekuensi, panjang gelombangnya semakin pendek. Dalam teori musik, simbol nada biasanya digunakan huruf C, D, E, F, G, A, B, c, d, e, f, g, a, b, dan seterusnya. Masing-masing nada memiliki frekuensi yang teratur. Misalnya, sebuah garputala mengeluarkan nada musik A. Artinya, garputala bergetar sebanyak 440 kali tiap sekonnya. Hal ini menghasilkan 440 pasang perapatan dan perenggangan. Dengan kata lain, nada A menghasilkan frekuensi 440 Hz. Frekuensi nada yang lainnya dapat ditentukan menggunakan perbandingan sebagai berikut.

1.      Frekuensi Nada pada Senar

Jika kamu sedang memetik gitar, jari tanganmu tidak pernah diam untuk mendapatkan suatu nada yang diharapkan. Kamu sudah mengetahui bahwa setiap kunci nada memiliki frekuensi yang berbeda-beda. Jadi, perpindahan jari tanganmu adalah untuk mendapatkan frekuensi yang diharapkan. Misalnya, salah satu senar dipetik tanpa ditekan mendapatkan nada A yang berfrekuensi 440 Hz. Jika senar ditekan pada jarak 8 cm dari ujung papan pegangan, berarti kamu sudah mengurangi panjang tali dan bagian massa tali yang bergetar. Akibatnya, frekuensi akan naik.

2.      Kuat Lemahnya Nada

Bergantung pada Amplitudo Pada saat kamu memetik gitar, bunyi yang dihasilkannya akan semakin keras jika petikannya lebih kuat. Sebaliknya, bunyi senar mejadi lemah jika kamu memetiknya dengan lembut. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ada sesuatu yang memengaruhi lemah kuatnya nada. Jika kamu memukul garputala dengan lemah, simpangan maksimum getarannya hanya sedikit sehingga bunyinya lemah. Jika kamu memukulnya dengan kuat, simpangan maksimum getarannya juga besar dan bunyi pun terdengar lebih keras. Kamu sudah mengetahui bahwa simpangan maksimum itu disebut amplitudo. Jadi, kuat lemahnya bunyi ditentukan oleh amplitudo.

3.      Desah

Suara ombak di pinggir pantai memiliki frekuensi tidak teratur. Gelombang bunyi yang frekuensinya tidak teratur disebut desah. Contoh lain dari desah adalah bunyi angin, bunyi kendaraan bermotor, dan bunyi suara mesin.

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33 Responses to ISTILAH-ISTILAH DALAM BUNYI

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