HUKUM ARCHIMEDES DAN PENERAPAN HUKUM ARCHIMEDES

HUKUM ARCHIMEDES 

Hukum archimedes memberikan pemahaman kepada kita tentang tekanan yang terjadi pada benda yang diletakan pada zat cair. Hukum archimedes ditemukan oleh ilmuwan berkebangsaan Yunani pada tahun 187-212 SM yang bernama Archimedes. Archimedes adalah seorang penemudan ahli matematika dari Yunani yang terkenal sebagai penemu hukum hidrostatika atau yang sering disebut Hukum Archimedes.

Pada saat kita berjalan atau berlari di dalam air, kita tentunya akan merasakan bahwa langkah kita lebih berat dibandingkan jika kitamelangkah di tempat biasa. Gejala ini disebabkan adanya tekanan dari zat cair. Pengamatan ini memunculkan sebuah hukum yang dikenal Hukum , yaitu : “Jika sebuah benda dicelupkan ke dalam zat cair, maka benda tersebut akan mendapat gaya yang disebut gaya apung (gaya ke atas) sebesar berat zat cair yang dipindahkannya”.

Akibat adanya gaya apung, berat benda dalam zat cair akan berkurang. Benda yang diangkat dalam zat cair akan terasa lebih ringan dibandingkan diangkat di darat. Jadi, telah jelas bahwa berat benda seakan berkurang bila benda dimasukkan ke dalam air. Hal itu karena adanya gaya ke atas yang ditimbulkan oleh air dan diterima benda. Dengan demikian maka resultan gaya antara gaya berat dengan gaya ke atas merupakan berat benda dalam air. Selanjutnya berat disebut dengan berat semu yaitu berat benda tidak sebenarnya karena benda berada dalam zat cair. Benda dalam air diberi simbol WS.

Hubungan antara berat benda di udara (W), gaya ke atas (Fa) dan berat semu (Ws) adalah :

Ws = W-Fa

dengan:

Ws = berat benda dalam zat cair (Kg⋅m/s2)

W = berat benda sebenarnya (Kg⋅m/s2)

Fa = gaya apung (N)

dan besarnya gaya apung (Fa) dirumuskan sebagai berikut :

Fa = ρcair Vb g

dengan:

ρcair = massa jenis zat cair (kg/m3)

Vb = volume benda yang tercelup (m3)

g = percepatan gravitasi (m/s2)

Benda Dalam Hukum Archimedes

Bila benda dicelupkan ke dalam zat cair, maka ada 3 kemungkinan yang terjadi yaitu tenggelam, melayang, dan terapung.

  1. Benda Tenggelam

Benda disebut tenggelam dalam zat cair apabila posisi benda selalu terletak pada dasar tempat zat cair berada.

Pada benda tenggelam terdapat tiga gaya yaitu :

W = gaya berat benda

Fa = gaya archimedes

N = gaya normal bidang

Dalam keadaan seimbang maka W = N + Fa  sehingga :

W > Fa
m . g > ρZC . Vb . g
ρb . Vb . g > ρZC . Vb . g

ρb > ρzc

ρb = massa jenis benda

ρZC = massa jenis zat cair

  1. Benda Melayang

Benda melayang dalam zat cair apabila posisi benda di bawah permukaan zat cair dan di atas dasar tempat zat cair berada.

Pada benda melayang terdapat dua gaya yaitu: Fa dan W. Dalam keadaan seimbang maka :

W = Fa
ρb . Vb . g = ρZC . Vb . g

ρb = ρzc

  1. Benda Terapung

Benda terapung dalam zat cair apabila posisi benda sebagian muncul dipermukaan zat cair dan sebagian terbenam dalam zat cair.

Pada benda terapung terdapat dua gaya yaitu :Fa dan W. Dalam keadaan seimbang maka :

W = Fa
ρb . Vb . g = ρZC . V2 . g
ρb . Vb = ρZC . V2

karena Vb > V2 maka : ρb < ρZC

PENERAPAN HUKUM ARCHIMEDES :

  1. Teknologi perkapalan seperti Kapal laut dan kapal Selam

Teknologi perkapalan merupakan contoh hasil aplikasi ata penerapan hukum Archimedes yang paling sering kita jumpai dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.  Kapan laut terbuat dari besi atau kayu yang di buat berongga dibagian tengahnya. Rongga pada bagian tengah kapal laut ini bertujuan agar volume air laut yang dipindahkan badan kapal  besar. Aplikasi ini bedasarkan bunyi hukum Archimedes dimana gaya apung suatu benda sebanding dengan banyaknya air yang dipindahkan. Dengan menggunakan prinsip tersebut maka kapal laut bisa terapung dan tidak tenggelam.

Berbeda dengan kapal selam yang memang di kehendaki untuk bisa tenggelam di air dan juga mengapung di udara. Untuk itu pada bagian tertentu dari kapal selam di persiapkan sebuah rongga yang dapat menampung sejumlah air laut yang bisa di isi dan di buang sesuai kebutuhan. Saat ingin menyelam, rongga tersebut di isi dengan air laut sehingga berat kapal selam bertambah. Sedangkan saat ingin mengapung, air laut dalam rongga tersebut di keluarkan sehingga bobot kapal selam menjadi ringan dan mampu melayang di permukaan.

  1. Alat pengukur massa jenis (Hidrometer)

Hidrometer adalah sebuah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur massa jenis zat cair. Hidrometer merupakan contoh penerapan hukum Archimedes dalam kehidupan sehari-hari yang paling sederhana. Cara kerja hidrometer merupakan realisasi bunyi hukum archimede, dimana suatu benda yang dimasukan kedalam zat cair sebagian atau keseluruhan akan mengalami gaya keatas yang besarnya sama dengan berat zat cair yang dipindahkan.Jika hidrometer dicelupkan ke dalam zat cair, sebagian alat tersebut akan tenggelam. Makin besar massa jenis zat cair, Makin sedikit bagian hidrometer yang tenggelam. Seberapa banyak air yang dipindahkan oleh hidrometer akan tertera pada skala yang terdapat pada alat hidrometer.

  1. Jembatan Poton

Jembatan poton adalah sebuah jembatan yang terbuat dari kumpulan drum-drum kosong yang melayang diatas air dan diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga menyerupai sebuah jembatan. Jembatan poton disebut juga jembatan apung. Untuk bisa di jadikan sebagai jembatan, drum-drum tersebut harus berada dalam kondisi kosong dan tertutup rapat sehingga udara di dalam drum tidak dapat keluar dan air tidak dapat masuk kedalam. Dengan cara itu berat jenis drum dapat diminimalkan sehingga bisa terapung di atas permukaan air

  1. Teknologi Balon Udara

Balon udara adalah penerapan prinsip Archimedes di udara. Jadi ternyata aplikasi hukum Archinedes tidak hanya berlaku untuk benda cair tetapi juga benda gas. Untuk dapat terbang melayang di udara, balon udara harus diisi dengan gas yang bermassa jenis lebih kecil dari massa jenis udara atmosfer, sehingga, balon udara dapat terbang karena mendapat gaya keatas, misalnya diisi udara yang dipanaskan. Udara yang dipanaskan memiliki tingkat kerenggangan lebih besar daripada udara biasa. Sehingga masa jenis udara tersebut menjadi ringgan.

Demikianlah pembahasan tentang Hukum Archimedes dan Penerapan Hukum Archimedes. semoga bermanfaat.. 🙂

31 Responses to HUKUM ARCHIMEDES DAN PENERAPAN HUKUM ARCHIMEDES

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