ENERGI POTENSIAL LISTRIK DAN POTENSIAL LISTRIK

  1. Energi Potensial Listrik

Energi potensila listrik merupakan besaran skalar. Energi poetensila listrik (Ep) disuatu titik b didefinisikan sebagai besar usaha (W) yang dilakukan oleh muatan q untuk memindahkan muatan uji dari titik a pada jarak tak hingga (ra =  ̴) ke titik b yang berjarak rb dari q.

W = q(V1-V2)       atau     W = ΔEp = Ep2 – Ep1 ; nilai Ep dapat dicari dengan

Keterangan:

W = usaha yang dilakukan oleh gaya tarik (joule)

Ep = energi potensial listrik (joule)

k   = tetapan Coulomb = 9 x 109 Nm2/C2

q   = muatan sumber (C)

q0  = muatan uji (C)

ra   = jarak dua muatan pada kedudukan awal (m)

rb   = jarak dau muatan pada kedudukan akhir (m)

V  = potensial listrik (V)

Energi potensial listrik suatu muatan yang dipengaruhi oleh medan listrik dari beberapa muatan sebandimg dengan jumlah aljabar dari energi potensial listrik masing-masing sumber. Tanda positif atau negatif muatan tetap dimasukkan ke dalam perhitungan.

Ep = E1 + E2 + E3

  1. Potensial Listrik

Potensial listrik (V) merupakan besaran skalar yang didefinisikan sebagai besarnya energi potensial listrik tiap satu satuan muatan uji.

Keterangan:

V  = potensial listrik (V)

Untuk membedakan antara potensial listrik oleh muatan negatif dan potensial listrik oleh muatan positif, potensial listrik diberi tanda sesuai dengan jenis muatan sumbernya. Jika sebuah titik dipengaruhi oleh lebih dri satu muatan sumber berlaku:

  1.   Medan Listrik Homogen

Beda potensial listrik antara titik A dan B yang bermuatan dalam medan listrik homogen dituliskan dalam persamaan berikut.

VAB = -E Δs cos α

Keterangan:

VAB     = beda potensial listrik antara dua titik yang bermuatan (volt)

E         = kaut medan listrik dalam medan listrik homogen (N/C)

Δs       = perpindahan muatan positif dari A ke B untuk menghasilkan VAB (m)

α         = sudut apit antara arah E dan perpindahan

2.   Medan Listrik Tak Homogen

Potensial listrik suatu titik yang berjarak r dari muatan sumber q adalah

3.   Hukum Kekekalan Energi Mekanik

Gerak partikel bermuatan dalam medan listrik dapat dianggap memenuhi hukum kekekalan energi mekanik.

Ep + Ek = tetap

4.   Konduktor Dua Keping Sejajar

Pada konduktor dua keping sejajar berlaku:

V = Ed

Keterangan:

V        = beda potensial listrik antara kedua keping (volt)

E         = kuat medan listrik homogen di antara kedua keping (V/m)

d         = jarak antara kedua keping (m)

5.   Konduktor Bola

Besarnya potensial listrik dipermukaan (r=R) dan di dalam bola konduktor (r<R) dirumuskan sebagai berikut.

Sementara itu, potensial listrik diluar bola (r>R) dituliskan sebagai berikut.

Keterangan:

R         = jari-jari bola konduktor (m)

r          = jarak suatu titik dari pusat bola (m)

Demikianlah pembahasan materi Energi Potensial Listrik dan Potensial Listrik, semoga bermanfaan dan menambah wawasan kita.

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